# Posts by Category

## How to Create Histogram Using NumPy

Learn how to Generate a histogram with NumPy

## How to Calculate Antilog of Values in R

Learn how to calculate antilogarithms in R common and natural logarithms with practical examples

## How to Calculate Antilog of Values in Python

Learn how to calculate antilogarithms in Python common and natural logarithms with practical examples

## Quantile vs Percentile in Python

Learn the key differences between quantiles and percentiles in Python

## Difference Between Quantile, Quartile, and Percentile

Learn the distinctions between quantiles, quartiles, and percentiles in statistics. Understand how these metrics divide and analyze data, providing insights ...

## Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis in R

Learn how to visualize and analyze survival times, compare groups, and assess the impact of predictor variables using Kaplan-Meier curves in R

## Calculate Quartiles in R

Learn how to calculate and visualize quartiles in R

## `random.uniform()`: R `runif()` Equivalent Function in Python

Learn how to use random.uniform(): Python counterpart to R’s runif() function

## Calculate Quartiles in Python

Learn how to calculate quartiles in Python using NumPy and pandas

## Two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test in R

Comprehensive guide to the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test in R

## Q-Q plot in Python

Learn how to create a Q-Q plot in Python to assess the normal distribution of the data

## One-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test in R

Comprehensive guide to the One-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test in R

## How to Use runif in R (Practical Examples)

Learn how to generate random numbers from uniform distributions in R with the runif() function

## Binary Logistic Regression in R

Learn how to perform binary logistic regression in R and evaluate the model performance

## Shapiro–Wilk Test in R

Learn to perform the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality in R with step-by-step guidance and make sure the data meets the normality assumption for reliable stati...

## Q-Q plot in R

Learn how to create a Q-Q plot in R to assess the normal distribution of the data

## How to Perform Mann-Whitney U test in R

Learn how to conduct the Mann-Whitney U test in R for non-parametric group comparison

## How to Calculate Descriptive Statistics in Python with Pandas DataFrame

Calculate descriptive statistics using describe() function from pandas DataFrame

## How to Use `describe()` Function in R

learn how to use describe() function in R with several examples

## How to Compute Trimmed Mean in R?

Learn how to calculate trimmed mean in R with several examples

## `summary()` Function in R: How to Use (With 6 Examples)?

How to use summary() function in R to get summarise the fitted model results

## How to Get R-Squared and Adjusted R-Squared From `lm` in R

Extract R-Squared and adjusted R-Squared from lm summary statistics after fitting regression model

## How to Get F Statistics and p Value From `lm` in R

Extract F Statistics and p value from lm summary statistics after fitting regression model

## How to Calculate VIF in R

This article describes how to calculate the Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) to detect multicollinearity in R

## Covariate in Statistics: Definition and Examples

Explanation of covariate in statistics, covariate examples, and how to use covariate in statistical analysis

## Survival analysis (Kaplan–Meier, Cox proportional hazards, and Log-rank test methods)

Detailed introduction of survival analysis and its calculations in R

## Multiple hypothesis testing problem in Bioinformatics

Multiple hypothesis testing and corrections, type I and II errors, false discovery rate, Bonferroni correction, and Benjamini/Hochberg correction

## Statistical hypothesis testing, types of errors, and interpretation of p values

Learn how to propose null and Alternative hypotheses, perform the statistical analysis, and interpret the results

## Find probabilities using discrete and continuous probability distributions

Learn how to use probability distributions, probability mass function (PMF), cumulative distribution function (CDF), and probability density function (PDF)

## Logistic regression in Python (feature selection, model fitting, and prediction)

Logistic regression for prediction of breast cancer, assumptions, feature selection, model fitting, model accuracy, and interpretation

## Multicollinearity and variance inflation factor (VIF) in the regression model (with Python code)

Multicollinearity refers to the significant correlation among the independent variables in the regression model. Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) helps to dia...

## Multiple linear regression (MLR)

Multiple regression analysis using statsmodels. Learn how to define regression model, assumptions, metrics evaluation, and interpretation

## Calculating residuals in regression analysis [Manually and with codes]

Learn to calculate residuals in regression analysis manually and with Python and R codes

## Calculate harmonic mean in R (with examples)

Learn what is harmonic mean and how to calculate it in R

## Calculate harmonic mean in Python (with examples)

Learn what is harmonic mean and how to calculate it in Python

## Generate dataset with normal distribution in Python

Learn how to generate a random dataset with normal distribution using NumPy

## How to perform Chi-squared (χ2) test for independence in Python (with example)

Learn when to use and how to calculate Chi-squared test for independence

## Analyze one and two-sample Z-test in R

Learn when to use Z-test, types of Z-test, assumptions, hypothesis, and formula for each type of test, and Z-test calculation in R

## Mastering Z-test in Python: A Step-by-Step Guide (With Examples)

Learn how to perform one sample, two samples, and paired Z-test in Python. This article also covers when to use Z-test, types of Z-test, assumptions, hypothe...

## How to perform one and two-sample t-test in Python

Learn when to use t-test, types of t-test, assumptions, hypothesis, and formula for each type of test, and t-test calculation in Python

## One and Two-sample Z-Test for proportions (with R code)

Learn to perform sample proportions Z-Test in R

## How to Perform Mann-Whitney U test in Python

Learn when to use Mann-Whitney U test, assumptions, hypothesis, and formula, and test calculation in Python

## Calculator for Mann-Whitney U test (Wilcoxon rank sum test)

Calculate Mann-Whitney U test online calculator

## How to Conduct Durbin-Watson Test in R

Find out how to detect autocorrelation in your data using the Durbin-Watson test in R. Get a step-by-step guide on how to run this test.

## Perform Durbin-Watson (DW) test in Python

Learn to perform Durbin-Watson test (a test for autocorrelation) in Python

## Perform t-test from scratch in Python

Calculate three types of t-test from scratch

## How to Perform Fisher’s Exact Test in R

Learn Conduct Fisher exact test in R for categorical data associations

## Fisher’s exact test of independence in Python [with example]

A step-by-step article for performing Fisher’s exact test in Python

## Fisher’s exact test calculator (with formula)

Online calculator for Fisher’s exact test of independence for 2 x 2 contingency table

## How to calculate correlation between two variables in R

This articles explains Pearson’s, Spearman’s rho, and Kendall’s Tau correlation methods and their calculation in R

## Correlation analysis in Python

Correlation analysis using Python code

## Repeated Measures ANOVA using Python and R (with examples)

Repeated Measure ANOVA in Python and R. This article explains repeated Measure ANOVA model, multiple pairwise comparisons, and results interpretation

## Mixed ANOVA using Python and R (with examples)

Learn to perform mixed ANOVA, check assumptions, and post-hoc tests for significant interactions and main effects

## How to Perform ANOVA in Python

Learn how to conduct one-way and two-way ANOVA tests, interpret results, and make informed statistical decisions using Python

## How to Perform MANOVA in R

Learn how to conduct Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) in R with step-by-step guidance

## Friedman test using R (with examples and code)

A step-by-step article for performing Friedman test in R

## Friedman test using Python (with examples and code)

A step-by-step article for performing Friedman test in Python

## ANCOVA using R and Python (with examples and code)

A step-by-step article for performing ANCOVA in R and Python. This article describes the background of ANCOVA, assumptions, hypotheses, and codes for perform...

## Understanding random sampling with and without replacement (with python code)

Learn how to perform random sampling with and without replacement and example in Python

## Variable types

Variable types Flowchart for types of variables used for collecting and analyzing the data

## MANOVA using Python (using statsmodels and sklearn)

Code for performing MANOVA in Python

## Manipulated, response, and control variables [definition and research example]

Learn the differences between manipulated, response, and control variable. Manipulated (also known as independent) variable can be changed in the experiment ...

## How to Calculate p Value by Hand

Learn how to calculate p-values by hand (using t test example) to gain a deeper understanding of statistical hypothesis testing.

## 8 methods to find outliers in R (with examples)

Learn how to detect outlier in the dataset using visual and statistical methods

## Brown-Forsythe test for equality of variances in R

Learn how to perform Brown-Forsythe test for equality of variances in R

## Brown-Forsythe test for equality of means in R

Learn how to perform Brown-Forsythe test for equality of means in R

## ANCOVA code in Python

This article explains how to perform the one-way ANCOVA in Python. You can refer to this article to know more about ANCOVA, when to use ANCOVA, assumptions, ...

## Calculate Coverage From BAM File

Learn how to use samtools depth and coverage commands to calculate the coverage from BAM file

## Get Non-overlapping Portion Between Two Regions in bedtools

Learn how to use bedtools subtract to get non-overlapping portion between two regions in BED files

## What is Log2 Fold Change in Bioinformatics

Learn what is log2 fold change, how to calculate log2 fold change, and why log2 transformation used for measuring the fold change between samples in bioinfo...

## Samtools: Extract Reads from Specific Genomic Regions

Learn how to extract reads from BAM files that fall within a specified region with samtools

## Samtools: Extract Mapped and Unmapped Paired-end Reads

Learn how to filter mapped and unmapped paired-end reads with Samtools

## Samtools: How to Filter Mapped and Unmapped Reads

Learn how to filter mapped and unmapped sequence reads with Samtools

## What is Singleton in Bioinformatics?

This tutorial explains what is singleton in bioinformatics

## ComplexHeatmap: Create Complex Heatmaps in R

Learn how to create customized heatmaps using ComplexHeatmap in R

## How to Use bedtools merge

Learn bedtools merge for combining overlapping and adjacent intervals in the BED file

## How to Use bedtools intersect

Learn bedtools intersect for finding overlapping and non-overlapping intervals between BED files in various ways

## Calculate All Possible Combinations of DNA bases

Calculate all DNA base combinations with Python code

## Steps in PCR

Learn the step-by-step process of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

## Methods to Calculate Melting Temperature (Tm) for Primers

Learn how to calculate primer melting temperature (Tm) for precise DNA amplification and molecular biology experiments

## Calculate Melting Temperature (Tm) in R

Three methods to calculate melting temperature (Tm) in R

## Calculate Melting Temperature (Tm) in Python

Three methods to calculate melting temperature (Tm) in Python

## Understanding E-value, bit score, and p value in BLAST

Explore the significance of E-value, bit score, and p-value in BLAST alignments. Gain insights into how these parameters assess homology between biological s...

## How to Use `seqtk subseq` to Extract Sequences from FASTA/FASTQ Files

Learn seqtk subseq function for extracting specific sequences and subsequences from a FASTA/FASTQ files

## Convert Multi-line Fasta into Single-line Fasta

Convert Multi-line Fasta into Single-line Fasta using Python

## How to Extract Sequences from FASTA in Python

Learn extract_seq() from bioinfokit function for extracting specific sequences and subsequences from a FASTA file

## `blastp`: Command-line Utility for Protein Sequence Search

Perform protein sequence similarity searches with the blastp command-line tool

## `blastn` vs `blastp`: Which One You Should Use?

What is difference between blastn and blastp

## `blastn`: Command-line Utility for Nucleotide Sequence Search

Perform Nucleotide sequence similarity searches with the blastn command-line tool

## How to Use `blastdbcmd` to Extract Sequences from BLAST Database

blastdbcmd: A command-line tool for retrieving all or specific sequences from formatted BLAST databases

## How to Reverse Complement of DNA Sequence in Python

Get the reverse complement of a DNA sequence in a Python

## How to Reverse Complement of DNA Sequence in Bash

Get the reverse complement of a DNA sequence in a one-liner Bash command using awk, tr, and rev

## Create a Local BLAST Database From FASTA File

Creating a local BLAST database from FASTA file for faster, customized sequence similarity searches

## What is Nextflow and How to Use it?

Learn what is Nextflow and how to use it for running bioinformatics pipeline

## Convert FASTQ to FASTA Format

List of Bioinformatics tools to convert FASTQ file into FASTA format

## Canu: Genome Assembly for PacBio and Nanopore Long-Reads (Detailed Guide)

Assemble PacBio and Nanopore long-reads using the Canu

## IUPAC Nucleotide Codes

IUPAC codes for representing nucleotide degeneracy

## How to Use bedtools getfasta to Extract DNA Sequences (With Example)

This article describes how to use the bedtools getfasta command to extract the sequence from the FASTA file based on the genomic coordinates given in the B...

## How to Determine Strandedness in RNA-seq Data (With Example)

Determine strandedness in RNA-seq using RSeQC quality control tool

## What is Strandedness in RNA-seq?

RNA-seq strandedness and difference between stranded and non-stranded RNA-seq

## HISAT2: Fast Aligner for NGS Data (complete Tutorial)

This tutorial explains how to use HISAT2 for aligning NGS reads to genome

## Two-pass alignment of RNA-seq reads with STAR

Complete tutorial on how to use STAR aligner in two-pass mode for mapping RNA-seq reads to genome

## Mastering RNA-seq Read Alignment With STAR

Learn how to align RNA-seq reads with STAR for accurate gene expression analysis in bioinformatics

## Linux for Bioinformatics (for beginners)

Learn Linux command lines for Bioinformatics analysis

## RNA-seq Data Analysis with edgeR

Perform differential gene expression analysis of RNA-seq data using EdgeR

## RNA-seq Data Analysis with DESeq2

Perform differential gene expression analysis of RNA-seq data using DESeq2

## Create a gene counts matrix from featureCounts

Generate a gene counts matrix when featureCounts run separately on individual aligned files

## Parsing and analyzing BAM files

SAMtools for manipulation of BAM files

## A guide to understanding the variant information fields in variant call format (VCF) file

VCF fields information

## Gene expression units explained: RPM, RPKM, FPKM, TPM, DESeq, TMM, SCnorm, GeTMM, and ComBat-Seq

bulk and single-cell RNA-seq expression units, count normalization, formula, examples in Python, gene quantification, batch effects, and between-sample and w...

## bedtools for genomics analysis

bedtools for comparative analysis of genomic datasets

## UMAP dimension reduction algorithm in Python (with example)

How to reduce and visualize high-dimensional data using UMAP in Python

## t-SNE in Python for visualization of high-dimensional data

t-SNE using sklearn package. This article explains the basics of t-SNE, differences between t-SNE and PCA, example using scRNA-seq data, and results interpre...

## Sequencing coverage and breadth of coverage

High-through sequencing coverage calculation and coverage recommendations

## pheatmap: create annotated heatmaps in R (detailed guide)

How to create and customize heatmap using pheatmap package in R

## Interactive Heatmap in Python (using hvPlot and Bokeh)

Visualize interactive heatmap using hvPlot and Bokeh

## Heatmap in Python

Heatmap and hierarchical clustering visualization in Python

## Principal component analysis (PCA) and visualization using Python (Detailed guide with example)

PCA using sklearn package. This article explains the basics of PCA, sample size requirement, data standardization, and interpretation of the PCA results

## Volcano plot in Python

Volcano plot using bioinfokit package. This article explains the visualization of volcano plots for gene expression data

## Multiple hypothesis testing problem in Bioinformatics

Multiple hypothesis testing and corrections, type I and II errors, false discovery rate, Bonferroni correction, and Benjamini/Hochberg correction

## Bioinformatics file readers and processing (FASTA, FASTQ, and VCF)

Biological data handling and processing using Python codes

## Manhattan plot in Python

Introduction, analysis, and visualization of Manhattan plot in Python

## MA plot to visualize gene expression data using Python

MA plot basics, analysis, and visualization

## Split the sequence into smaller subsequences

Split the nucleotide sequence into smaller sequences with defined size

## FASTQ Sequence Quality Format

FASTQ sequence example, quality formats, and quality format detection

## Convert GFF3 to GTF file format

Introduction to GFF3 and GTF files, and their interconversions using Python code

## Annotation of genetic variants (SNPs/InDels) in VCF file

Genetic variant annotation for variant location in the genome, associated genes, and their gene functions

## Venn diagrams in Python and R

Create two and three-way Venn diagrams in Python and R

## Reverse Complement of DNA Sequences

Reverse complementary of DNA sequences

## Concatenate and split VCF files

What is VCF file? VCF stands for variant call format It is a text file (file extension as .vcf) storing meta-information, marker and genotype data of ge...

## Correlation analysis in Python

Correlation analysis using Python code

## How to Create Histogram Using NumPy

Learn how to Generate a histogram with NumPy

## How to Calculate Antilog of Values in Python

Learn how to calculate antilogarithms in Python common and natural logarithms with practical examples

## Quantile vs Percentile in Python

Learn the key differences between quantiles and percentiles in Python

## `random.uniform()`: R `runif()` Equivalent Function in Python

Learn how to use random.uniform(): Python counterpart to R’s runif() function

## Calculate Quartiles in Python

Learn how to calculate quartiles in Python using NumPy and pandas

## Calculate AUC in Python (With Example)

Learn how to compute AUC (Area Under the Curve) in Python for evaluating classification model performance

## How to Plot ROC Curve in Python

Learn how to plot ROC curve in Python for model evaluation

## Q-Q plot in Python

Learn how to create a Q-Q plot in Python to assess the normal distribution of the data

## How to Calculate Descriptive Statistics in Python with Pandas DataFrame

Calculate descriptive statistics using describe() function from pandas DataFrame

## K-means Clustering in Python: Detailed Guide With Example

This article how to perform and visualize the K-means Clustering in Python

## Query pandas DataFrame to select rows based on value and condition matching

Learn how to query pandas DataFrame to select rows based on exact match, partial match, and conditional match in pandas DataFrame

## Import small and large data using pandas (CSV, Excel, Tab, JSON, SQL, and Parquet files)

learn how to import CSV, Excel, Tab, JSON, and SQL files in pandas for data analysis and visualization

## Checking and handling missing values (`NaN`) in pandas

Analyse and handle null or missing values in pandas series and dataframe

## Left, right, outer and inner joins on pandas dataframes

learn to join pandas dataframes in multiple ways

## Violin plot in Python (using seaborn and matplotlib)

Learn how to create violin plots in Python (using seaborn and matplotlib package)

## How to Split Data into Train and Test Sets in Python with sklearn

Learn how to split train and test datasets in Python using train_test_split() function from sklearn

## Create a line plot using pandas DataFrame (`pandas.DataFrame.plot.line`)

Create single and multiple line plots from pandas DataFrame. Learn how to use pandas plotting functions for creating grouped line plots.

## Support Vector Machine (SVM) in Python

Implementation of Support vector machine (SVM) in Python for prediction of heart disease. Learn SVM basics, model fitting, model accuracy, and interpretation

## Create scatter plots using Python (matplotlib `pyplot.scatter`)

Learn how to create 2D and 3D scatter plots from numerical arrays and pandas DataFrame using Python matplotlib package

## Linear regression in Python (using sklearn and statsmodels)

This article explains background of the linear regression and how to perform a linear regression with a Python code.

## Calculating residuals in regression analysis [Manually and with codes]

Learn to calculate residuals in regression analysis manually and with Python and R codes

## DBSCAN clustering algorithm in Python (with example dataset)

Learn the basics of DBSCAN and implement DBSCAN clustering in Python

## How to subset from pandas DataFrame?

This article explains how to select rows, columns, and a subset of pandas DataFrame using various indexing operations and pandas functions

What is pandas?

## How to replace column values in pandas DataFrame based on column conditions

Learn four methods to replace the column values in pandas DataFrame based on column conditions

## How to unpivot pandas DataFrame (wide to long format)

Learn how to convert pandas DataFrame from wide to long format using melt() function

## Pandas groupby function to group column values into list

Group dataframe rows into a list based on a common element from one column

## How to split strings into a list of integers in Python?

Learn how to split the strings as an int list in Python

## How to multiply two or multiple columns in a pandas DataFrame

Learn how to multiply single or multiple columns in a pandas DataFrame

## Calculate harmonic mean in Python (with examples)

Learn what is harmonic mean and how to calculate it in Python

## Generate dataset with normal distribution in Python

Learn how to generate a random dataset with normal distribution using NumPy

## How to identify and drop duplicates based on single and multiple columns in a pandas DataFrame

Learn how to identify and drop duplicates in a pandas DataFrame

## Sort dictionary by key and value in Python

Learn how to create and sort Python dictionary by key and value

## Python enumerate to simplify the looping

Python enumerate built-in function allows iterating over list and dictionary and helps to access its items along with index values

## Six ways to get keys from the dictionary in Python

Learn how to obtain keys from dictionary in Python

## Python count() function for strings

Learn how to count strings in Python

## How to add rows to the Pandas DataFrame

Learn various ways to add rows to the Pandas DataFrame

## Python tuples

Python tuples initialization and operations

## 8 different ways to get column names from pandas DataFrame

Learn different methods to get column names from pandas DataFrame

## Simple ways to rename column names in pandas DataFrame

Learn different methods to rename single and multiple column names in pandas DataFrame

## 3 ways to get the last characters of a string in Python

Learn how to get last any number of characters of the strings in Python

## Query pandas DataFrame to split the values in column

Learn how to split the value in pandas DataFrame column and create new columns

## 3 easy ways to remove the last characters of a string in Python

Learn how to get remove any number of characters of the strings in Python

## Mastering Z-test in Python: A Step-by-Step Guide (With Examples)

Learn how to perform one sample, two samples, and paired Z-test in Python. This article also covers when to use Z-test, types of Z-test, assumptions, hypothe...

## How to perform one and two-sample t-test in Python

Learn when to use t-test, types of t-test, assumptions, hypothesis, and formula for each type of test, and t-test calculation in Python

## How to Perform ANOVA in Python

Learn how to conduct one-way and two-way ANOVA tests, interpret results, and make informed statistical decisions using Python

## pip and conda to install and upgrade Python packages

Learn how to install, upgrade, and check versions of Python packages

## What is Stratified sampling and why should you use it (with example in Python)?

Learn how to perform stratified sampling in Python

## MANOVA using Python (using statsmodels and sklearn)

Code for performing MANOVA in Python

## ANCOVA code in Python

This article explains how to perform the one-way ANCOVA in Python. You can refer to this article to know more about ANCOVA, when to use ANCOVA, assumptions, ...

## How to Calculate Antilog of Values in R

Learn how to calculate antilogarithms in R common and natural logarithms with practical examples

## Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis in R

Learn how to visualize and analyze survival times, compare groups, and assess the impact of predictor variables using Kaplan-Meier curves in R

## ComplexHeatmap: Create Complex Heatmaps in R

Learn how to create customized heatmaps using ComplexHeatmap in R

## Calculate Quartiles in R

Learn how to calculate and visualize quartiles in R

## Calculate AUC in R: Step-by-Step Guide With Example

Learn how to compute AUC (Area Under the Curve) in R for evaluating classification model performance

## Two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test in R

Comprehensive guide to the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test in R

## How to Plot ROC Curve in R

Learn how to plot ROC curve in R for model evaluation

## One-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test in R

Comprehensive guide to the One-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test in R

## How to Use runif in R (Practical Examples)

Learn how to generate random numbers from uniform distributions in R with the runif() function

## Binary Logistic Regression in R

Learn how to perform binary logistic regression in R and evaluate the model performance

## Shapiro–Wilk Test in R

Learn to perform the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality in R with step-by-step guidance and make sure the data meets the normality assumption for reliable stati...

## Q-Q plot in R

Learn how to create a Q-Q plot in R to assess the normal distribution of the data

## How to Perform Mann-Whitney U test in R

Learn how to conduct the Mann-Whitney U test in R for non-parametric group comparison

## How to Use `describe()` Function in R

learn how to use describe() function in R with several examples

## How to Compute Trimmed Mean in R?

Learn how to calculate trimmed mean in R with several examples

## `summary()` Function in R: How to Use (With 6 Examples)?

How to use summary() function in R to get summarise the fitted model results

## How to Get R-Squared and Adjusted R-Squared From `lm` in R

Extract R-Squared and adjusted R-Squared from lm summary statistics after fitting regression model

## How to Get F Statistics and p Value From `lm` in R

Extract F Statistics and p value from lm summary statistics after fitting regression model

## How to Calculate VIF in R

This article describes how to calculate the Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) to detect multicollinearity in R

## pheatmap: create annotated heatmaps in R (detailed guide)

How to create and customize heatmap using pheatmap package in R

## 3 efficient ways to read (import) a CSV file into R

Learn how to read (import) a CSV in R

## Solving the Most Common R Error: ‘Duplicate row.names are not allowed’

Solution for how to read a dataset with duplicated row names using read.csv() function

## Calculating residuals in regression analysis [Manually and with codes]

Learn to calculate residuals in regression analysis manually and with Python and R codes

## Calculate harmonic mean in R (with examples)

Learn what is harmonic mean and how to calculate it in R

## How to use `%in%` and `%notin%` operators in R (with examples)

Learn how to use %in% operator in R

## How to use `\$` operator in Data Frame and list in R (with six examples)

Learn how to use \$ operators in R to work with Data Frame and list

## Subset Data Frames in R

Learn to subset or filter Data Frames in R

## How to reorder Data Frame columns by column names and index in R (with examples)

Learn to reorder columns by name and index in R Data Frame

## Analyze one and two-sample Z-test in R

Learn when to use Z-test, types of Z-test, assumptions, hypothesis, and formula for each type of test, and Z-test calculation in R

## How to Conduct Durbin-Watson Test in R

Find out how to detect autocorrelation in your data using the Durbin-Watson test in R. Get a step-by-step guide on how to run this test.

## How to Perform Fisher’s Exact Test in R

Learn Conduct Fisher exact test in R for categorical data associations

## Fisher’s exact test of independence in Python [with example]

A step-by-step article for performing Fisher’s exact test in Python

## How to calculate correlation between two variables in R

This articles explains Pearson’s, Spearman’s rho, and Kendall’s Tau correlation methods and their calculation in R

## Kruskal-Wallis test in R [with example and code]

Kruskal-Wallis test is a non-parametric test for estimating the differences between multiple groups. Learn the basics of Kruskal-Wallis test, its underlying ...

## How to Perform MANOVA in R

Learn how to conduct Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) in R with step-by-step guidance

## Friedman test using R (with examples and code)

A step-by-step article for performing Friedman test in R

## Friedman test using Python (with examples and code)

A step-by-step article for performing Friedman test in Python

## ANCOVA using R and Python (with examples and code)

A step-by-step article for performing ANCOVA in R and Python. This article describes the background of ANCOVA, assumptions, hypotheses, and codes for perform...

## 8 methods to find outliers in R (with examples)

Learn how to detect outlier in the dataset using visual and statistical methods

## Query pandas DataFrame to select rows based on value and condition matching

Learn how to query pandas DataFrame to select rows based on exact match, partial match, and conditional match in pandas DataFrame

## Import small and large data using pandas (CSV, Excel, Tab, JSON, SQL, and Parquet files)

learn how to import CSV, Excel, Tab, JSON, and SQL files in pandas for data analysis and visualization

## Checking and handling missing values (`NaN`) in pandas

Analyse and handle null or missing values in pandas series and dataframe

## Left, right, outer and inner joins on pandas dataframes

learn to join pandas dataframes in multiple ways

## Create a line plot using pandas DataFrame (`pandas.DataFrame.plot.line`)

Create single and multiple line plots from pandas DataFrame. Learn how to use pandas plotting functions for creating grouped line plots.

## How to subset from pandas DataFrame?

This article explains how to select rows, columns, and a subset of pandas DataFrame using various indexing operations and pandas functions

## How to replace column values in pandas DataFrame based on column conditions

Learn four methods to replace the column values in pandas DataFrame based on column conditions

## How to unpivot pandas DataFrame (wide to long format)

Learn how to convert pandas DataFrame from wide to long format using melt() function

## Simple ways to rename column names in pandas DataFrame

Learn different methods to rename single and multiple column names in pandas DataFrame

## Query pandas DataFrame to split the values in column

Learn how to split the value in pandas DataFrame column and create new columns

## Principal component analysis (PCA) and visualization using Python (Detailed guide with example)

PCA using sklearn package. This article explains the basics of PCA, sample size requirement, data standardization, and interpretation of the PCA results

## Decision tree algorithm for classifications (with illustrative example)

Detailed introduction to decision tree learning algorithms and how to construct a decision tree

## Support Vector Machine (SVM) in Python

Implementation of Support vector machine (SVM) in Python for prediction of heart disease. Learn SVM basics, model fitting, model accuracy, and interpretation

## Create scatter plots using Python (matplotlib `pyplot.scatter`)

Learn how to create 2D and 3D scatter plots from numerical arrays and pandas DataFrame using Python matplotlib package

## Multicollinearity and variance inflation factor (VIF) in the regression model (with Python code)

Multicollinearity refers to the significant correlation among the independent variables in the regression model. Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) helps to dia...

## Multiple linear regression (MLR)

Multiple regression analysis using statsmodels. Learn how to define regression model, assumptions, metrics evaluation, and interpretation

## Linear regression in Python (using sklearn and statsmodels)

This article explains background of the linear regression and how to perform a linear regression with a Python code.

## DBSCAN clustering algorithm in Python (with example dataset)

Learn the basics of DBSCAN and implement DBSCAN clustering in Python

## Variable types

Variable types Flowchart for types of variables used for collecting and analyzing the data

## 8 methods to find outliers in R (with examples)

Learn how to detect outlier in the dataset using visual and statistical methods

## Calculate AUC in Python (With Example)

Learn how to compute AUC (Area Under the Curve) in Python for evaluating classification model performance

## Calculate AUC in R: Step-by-Step Guide With Example

Learn how to compute AUC (Area Under the Curve) in R for evaluating classification model performance

## How to Plot ROC Curve in R

Learn how to plot ROC curve in R for model evaluation

## How to Plot ROC Curve in Python

Learn how to plot ROC curve in Python for model evaluation

## Binary Logistic Regression in R

Learn how to perform binary logistic regression in R and evaluate the model performance

## Logistic regression in Python (feature selection, model fitting, and prediction)

Logistic regression for prediction of breast cancer, assumptions, feature selection, model fitting, model accuracy, and interpretation

## How to Split Data into Train and Test Sets in Python with sklearn

Learn how to split train and test datasets in Python using train_test_split() function from sklearn

## Linear Regression Using Neural Networks (PyTorch)

Linear regression using PyTorch

## What is Stratified sampling and why should you use it (with example in Python)?

Learn how to perform stratified sampling in Python

## Python: Why VIF Return Inf Value?

Learn resons behind the Inf Value in VIF analysis in Python with example

## Find Max and Min Sequence Length in Fasta

Learn how to find the maximum and minimum sequence lengths in a FASTA file using Python, seqkit, and samtools

## UMAP dimension reduction algorithm in Python (with example)

How to reduce and visualize high-dimensional data using UMAP in Python

## t-SNE in Python for visualization of high-dimensional data

t-SNE using sklearn package. This article explains the basics of t-SNE, differences between t-SNE and PCA, example using scRNA-seq data, and results interpre...

## K-means Clustering in Python: Detailed Guide With Example

This article how to perform and visualize the K-means Clustering in Python

## Understanding random sampling with and without replacement (with python code)

Learn how to perform random sampling with and without replacement and example in Python

## Logistic regression in Python (feature selection, model fitting, and prediction)

Logistic regression for prediction of breast cancer, assumptions, feature selection, model fitting, model accuracy, and interpretation

## Multiple linear regression (MLR)

Multiple regression analysis using statsmodels. Learn how to define regression model, assumptions, metrics evaluation, and interpretation

## Linear regression in Python (using sklearn and statsmodels)

This article explains background of the linear regression and how to perform a linear regression with a Python code.

## ANCOVA using R and Python (with examples and code)

A step-by-step article for performing ANCOVA in R and Python. This article describes the background of ANCOVA, assumptions, hypotheses, and codes for perform...

## What is Log2 Fold Change in Bioinformatics

Learn what is log2 fold change, how to calculate log2 fold change, and why log2 transformation used for measuring the fold change between samples in bioinfo...

## Steps in PCR

Learn the step-by-step process of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

## Methods to Calculate Melting Temperature (Tm) for Primers

Learn how to calculate primer melting temperature (Tm) for precise DNA amplification and molecular biology experiments

## Calculate Melting Temperature (Tm) in R

Three methods to calculate melting temperature (Tm) in R

## How to Count Number of Columns in CSV File in Bash

Learn how to count the number of columns in a CSV file using awk

## Linux for Bioinformatics (for beginners)

Learn Linux command lines for Bioinformatics analysis

## Bioinformatics file readers and processing (FASTA, FASTQ, and VCF)

Biological data handling and processing using Python codes

## FASTQ Sequence Quality Format

FASTQ sequence example, quality formats, and quality format detection

## Convert GFF3 to GTF file format

Introduction to GFF3 and GTF files, and their interconversions using Python code

## UMAP dimension reduction algorithm in Python (with example)

How to reduce and visualize high-dimensional data using UMAP in Python

## t-SNE in Python for visualization of high-dimensional data

t-SNE using sklearn package. This article explains the basics of t-SNE, differences between t-SNE and PCA, example using scRNA-seq data, and results interpre...

## Principal component analysis (PCA) and visualization using Python (Detailed guide with example)

PCA using sklearn package. This article explains the basics of PCA, sample size requirement, data standardization, and interpretation of the PCA results

## 3 ways to get the last characters of a string in Python

Learn how to get last any number of characters of the strings in Python

## 3 easy ways to remove the last characters of a string in Python

Learn how to get remove any number of characters of the strings in Python

## Volcano plot in Python

Volcano plot using bioinfokit package. This article explains the visualization of volcano plots for gene expression data

## Convert GFF3 to GTF file format

Introduction to GFF3 and GTF files, and their interconversions using Python code

## Kruskal-Wallis test in R [with example and code]

Kruskal-Wallis test is a non-parametric test for estimating the differences between multiple groups. Learn the basics of Kruskal-Wallis test, its underlying ...

## Fisher’s exact test calculator (with formula)

Online calculator for Fisher’s exact test of independence for 2 x 2 contingency table

## How to identify and drop duplicates based on single and multiple columns in a pandas DataFrame

Learn how to identify and drop duplicates in a pandas DataFrame

## Violin plot in Python (using seaborn and matplotlib)

Learn how to create violin plots in Python (using seaborn and matplotlib package)

## Annotation of genetic variants (SNPs/InDels) in VCF file

Genetic variant annotation for variant location in the genome, associated genes, and their gene functions

## Annotation of genetic variants (SNPs/InDels) in VCF file

Genetic variant annotation for variant location in the genome, associated genes, and their gene functions

## Manhattan plot in Python

Introduction, analysis, and visualization of Manhattan plot in Python

## Principal component analysis (PCA) and visualization using Python (Detailed guide with example)

PCA using sklearn package. This article explains the basics of PCA, sample size requirement, data standardization, and interpretation of the PCA results

## K-means Clustering in Python: Detailed Guide With Example

This article how to perform and visualize the K-means Clustering in Python

## RNA-seq Data Analysis with edgeR

Perform differential gene expression analysis of RNA-seq data using EdgeR

## IUPAC Nucleotide Codes

IUPAC codes for representing nucleotide degeneracy